2021.12.05 11:59 OkRespond2995 So I just got this Instagram ad & now I don’t want Christmas…
2021.12.05 11:59 ASICmachine In 2 weeks the bullrun will continue!!! (x-post from /r/Cryptocurrency)
2021.12.05 11:59 ASICmachine DCA, Stake, Mine, Ignore for a long period of time: Build Wealth (x-post from /r/Cryptocurrency)
2021.12.05 11:59 tryingeryday Fintech recruiter is completely out of touch. If you care about how much you're paid, then you're not worth hiring!
|submitted by tryingeryday to antiwork [link] [comments]|
2021.12.05 11:59 jpfdeuce Christina Aguilera - I Turn To You
|submitted by jpfdeuce to 2000sMusic [link] [comments]|
2021.12.05 11:59 nicholaas1818 Si a alguno le gusta mucho staryuuki, hablenme y hacemos un grupo de tributos y nos turnamos para llenarle de leche la papayuuki por telegram, que dicen? Md
|submitted by nicholaas1818 to staryuukii [link] [comments]|
2021.12.05 11:59 ASICmachine Like last week 23 BTC were traded using LocalBitcoin in Venezuela. One BTC is around Bs. (Bolivares) 230,000 (Down from Bs. 270,000). Monthly minimum wage still at a little bit over 2 USD. (x-post from /r/Cryptocurrency)
2021.12.05 11:59 Pomettini No public only to in an em
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2021.12.05 11:59 JewtWalter Daha önceki tasarladığım kartla bu kartı beraber paylaşacaktım ama reddit maalesef iki adet resmi bir postla paylaşmaktan aciz olduğu için.
|submitted by JewtWalter to BarbiroseLoR [link] [comments]|
2021.12.05 11:59 TheChamberPlaylist 🙏🏾🤞🏾❤️💎
2021.12.05 11:59 Muted_Fix_5961 Blackview R6 Smart Watch with GPS, Water Resistant
|submitted by Muted_Fix_5961 to smartShoping [link] [comments]|
2021.12.05 11:59 ASICmachine Tired of seeing the word "crash" on every post...let's move on shall we (x-post from /r/Cryptocurrency)
2021.12.05 11:59 FlanGG Angler megacorp?
New to the game and currently experimenting with viable megacorp builds. Trying the mentioned setup right now. I've heard that clercs are really subpar, so anglers/pearldivers seem like an optimisation of pops. But Mercantile tradition feels really nice because of the unity income, and it boosts clercs and makes trading buildings more viable. So, the question is, are anglers viable at all?
Right now trying it with Ocean paradise. Not sure about ethics, fanatic xenophile seems viable because of the huge trade boost, but what about the second one? Is materialist worth it for the research, or pacifist boons can be more important?
submitted by FlanGG to Stellaris [link] [comments]
2021.12.05 11:59 Dependent_Method_446 Trailer Trailer: Marvel Studios’ Eternals & Marvel Studios’ Shang-Chi And The Legend Of The Ten Rings [ravedj]
|submitted by Dependent_Method_446 to ravedj [link] [comments]|
2021.12.05 11:59 BeagleInTheSnow [Amateur Radio] Battle of the Bands, Part II: The Infamous Bad Boys of 14.313
Hello again! I was surprised and delighted to see the response to my previous amateur radio hobby drama post. I’ve returned to share the story of yet another “battle of the band”. This time, I will share the story of the troubled 14.313.
In my last post, I went into a fair amount of detail about the technical side of amateur radio. I would encourage those who are curious to go back and read the first section of the write up - but the technical information is not strictly necessary here. All that you need to know is that the radio spectrum is divided up like a pie. A slice goes to Radionavigation, a slice to Maritime traffic, a few slices to military communications… and a few slices of the spectrum are allocated to amateur radio. Each of these slices are called a “band” in radio lingo.
Amateur radio is defined by the use of radio equipment for non-commercial purposes. Anybody can become licensed to use the amateur radio bands by passing a series of competency exams. At the heart of amateur radio is the ability to communicate with other amateurs over the radio, either by voice or by sending digital data packets.
Amateur radio (as a class of American radio license) began in 1912 as a way to ensure that radio hobbyists followed a clear set of regulations designed to keep their transmissions from causing interference to the U.S. Navy’s military communication. At the same time as the “amateur” distinction was created, so was an exam to be passed in order for an amateur license to be granted. The exam covers the technical aspects of radio communication, and is designed to ensure that each licensee (theoretically) possesses the knowledge required to build and operate equipment in a way that does not cause interference. Over the past century, amateur radio licensing (and the associated exam) has evolved - but the overarching goal of the exam has always been to confirm that the licensee is privy to the regulations, etiquette, and technical operation of the radio. The governing body of amateur radio in the United States is the FCC. The usage of the amateur spectrum is far too vast for the FCC to police effectively, so amateur operators are very much on their honor to self-police and follow the proper protocols. Amateur radio hobbyists have obtained quite a reputation for being militant self-policers, never afraid to put a badly-behaved operator in their place or even report malpractice directly to the FCC.
One of the most popular activities in amateur radio is called “rag chew”, which involves a casual conversation with another operator over the radio much the same way that two friends would converse face-to-face. Rag chew is somewhat informal, and there are few limitations to what an operator is allowed to discuss over the radio - but there are legal constraints that dictate how a transmission should be structured, and a certain level of etiquette that is expected of everyone enjoying the hobby. For instance, the spectrum has a limited amount of space for every amateur to share. When one group of operators are using a specific frequency to chat, it is considered good etiquette (and, to some extent, a legal obligation) to find a different “open” frequency so as not to cause interference. Etiquette is a very important part of amateur radio, and most operators take the practice of radio etiquette to be as essential as the actual FCC regulations.
Slices of the radio spectrum that are allocated to amateur radio use are often referred to by their corresponding wavelength (wavelength and frequency are directly related to one another). The amateur band spanning from 14.000 MHz to 14.350 MHz is called the 20 meter band, since a radio wave with a frequency of 14.000 MHz has a wavelength of about 20 meters. The 20 meter band is one of the most popular amateur bands, primarily due to the fact that it is very easy to build an antenna that is resonant on 20 meters and the ionosphere provides favorable conditions for the 20 meter band during daylight almost the whole year around.
Everything from 14.150 to 14.350 MHz - the “upper half” of the 20 meter band - is popular for rag chewing. Each voice signal takes up a bandwidth of roughly 3 kilohertz, so a large number of signals could fit comfortably in this space simultaneously. If a station was operating on 14.300, for instance, someone wishing to avoid interference would want to choose a frequency below 14.297 or above 14.303. This allows for plenty of room within the band… Enough that interference between operators should rarely be a problem in theory.
That being said, certain frequencies are “benchmarked” for specific uses and are therefore more active than the others. For example, one such frequency is 14.230, on which most amateurs observe an unspoken “gentleman’s agreement” that the frequency be used to send images using the SSTV data protocol. Other frequencies are benchmarked for periodic use by groups called “nets”, which are a collection of amateur operators that meet on the air to discuss a special interest, everywhere from radio trivia to alleged UFO sightings to support groups for submarine veterans. Finally, some frequencies enjoy no special distinction, but become noteworthy as particularly active frequencies. One such example, and the topic of this post, is 14.313 MHz.
Before we discuss the drama on 14.313, there is one specific law governing amateur radio that you need to keep in mind. When an operator is granted their license, they receive a government-issued call sign. They are a short sequence of numbers and letters (e.g. AA1AA, WX0YZ…) which is specific to the operator. The data is public and, given a call sign, anybody could go to the FCC website and trace the call to the name and address of the operator. An operator is obligated to identify their station at least at the beginning of every transmission, and then periodically during the conversation too. Proper identification practice falls into the category of “regulation and etiquette”, because it allows each station to determine to whom they are talking. It is seen as an extreme faux pas to fail to identify with a call sign, or to identify incorrectly. And allow me to reiterate, amateur radio operators are known to be militant self-policers of both the law and the etiquette governing the hobby.
The 50’s and 60’s marked a period of great popularity for amateur radio. Many veterans found the hobby as an excellent way to practice the radioman skills they had learned in the service, and civilians were eager to participate in radio due to its large cultural significance at the time. Radios of that era were a hefty investment - in terms of today’s money, a decent receiver and transmitter could cost upwards of $2,000 to $3,000. Radios of the time comprised large banks of vacuum tubes, and at the time it was much more common for somebody to service their own equipment. That is to say, the technical aspect of the hobby was especially important in the 50’s and 60’s, when an influx of highly-skilled hobbyists entered the scene with high-end radio equipment to which they had a personal connection. This cultural embrace of radio went hand-in-hand with an era of strict enforcement by the FCC, with the agency dedicating a large amount of their resources to monitoring and policing the amateur bands. This era was defined by a sense of civility and morality becoming of the scientific nature of the hobby at the time.
As the 60s gave way to the 70s, the popularity of amateur radio gave way to a similar hobby: CB radio. Like amateur radio, the primary goal of CB radio is to communicate with other operators. Unlike amateur radio, CB operators do not have a militant code of radio etiquette, nor are CB operators required to pass a competency exam. CB communications are generally much less structured than amateur communications, and CB operators are far less constrained in the format of their communications. They are not expected to be technically competent, as CB radio sets are constrained in their functionality. In fact, a large number of amateur operators have a great distaste for CB operators, seeing them as (with no exaggeration) jackasses and bastards ruining the gentlemanly nature of the radio services. The complaints levied towards CB operators generally fall into two categories: first, amateur operators see CB ops as being less technically competent since they are not required to demonstrate competency to the FCC. This was especially true in the 70s, when an amateur operator was required to pass a morse proficiency exam in addition to the technical exam. Certified CB radios are not capable of making transmissions outside of the CB band, where amateur radios are fully-capable transmitters and the operator is expected to have the knowledge required to operate within band and power limits. Second, CB operators generally follow a more lax code of conduct, which many licensed amateurs see as ungentlemanly and unbecoming. Predictably, any “CB behavior” on the amateur bands draws lots of attention and ire. Also predictably, the lax nature of the CB radio bands meant that the FCC did not perform many enforcement activities targeted at CB users. As opposed to amateurs who were expected to be masters of their equipment in a quest to prevent any and all interference, CB was seen very much as “use at your own risk.”
The boom of CB operators in the 1970s caused a steady stream of new amateur licensees. This, in turn, drew a lot of heat for established amateur operators, who often felt that the new operators (who were introduced to radio by the “unrefined” CB practice) lacked respect for the formality and etiquette of proper amateur communication.
Naturally, the influx of new and relatively untrained operators brought a fair share of troublemakers too. And this is where our story truly begins.
For quite some time, the 14.313 frequency has played host to an amateur net set to discuss maritime activities. When it is not being used for the maritime net, it also plays host to a wide range of regulars who use 313 as their de-facto rag chewing frequency. It would be totally reasonable to assume that, of all the licensed amateurs in the United States (about 700,000), there are bound to be a few bad actors. As it happened, they tended to congregate on the 313.
As early as the mid-late 70s, long-time radio operators began to raise concern about a new group of radio vagrants displaying their unruly “CB behavior” on the 20 meter band. 14.300-14.350 began to gain a reputation as a gathering place for these mischievous operators, and multiple nets decided to change their established frequency in order to avoid the constant interference they would suffer while operating around 14.3xx. This was a particular issue, as avoiding interference is seen to be a matter of both law and etiquette in the hobby. It did not help that the FCC, in the middle of restructuring the CB service among other projects, began to de-prioritize the enforcement of amateur radio infractions around this time.
In practice, the influx of new operators coupled with an overwhelmed FCC meant that the lack of enforcement continued well beyond the 70s. As it happened, many of the “radio unsavories” began to establish a stronger presence on 14.313. They made their presence known in a variety of ways. One popular modus operandi was to transmit loud and intentionally obnoxious sounds and music (particularly without attributing the transmission to a valid call sign, thus making it much harder to track). Other popular deviant activities included using false call signs, using CB slang instead of proper radio nomenclature, intentionally interfering with other operators (and especially with nets), and most notably going on long-winded and profane political rants (it is illegal to transmit profane language). Amazingly, they were often quite brazen - these operators would often sign off on clearly illegal behavior with their valid callsign, feeling that the FCC was far too ineffective at this point to ever levy an actual punishment.
Of course, amateur radio operators are militant with self-policing. As soon as the troublemakers established themselves, well-meaning operators began trying to deal with the situation in every way they knew how… Primarily by scolding the agitators over the radio, and also by willfully interfering with troublesome transmissions. However, as with all trolls, the 14.313 group delighted at starting arguments and raising reactions. And so began an arms race of sorts, with operators of traditional sensibility raising a remarkable fuss and even setting up websites dedicated to tracking specific individuals and their illegal or unsavory on-air behavior. This is one of many reasons why amateur operators have earned a reputation for defending the integrity of the hobby to the extreme.
With 14.313 becoming a spectacle of the amateur band, so did a spotlight shine on the FCC and their lack of enforcement action. By the turn of the century, the widespread proliferation of personal video technology allowed amateur operators to share videos of the misbehavior on 14.313. As I mentioned, a number of the well-meaning operators compiled large websites filled with such documentation, calling out each offender by name and listing the FCC regulations which they had allegedly broken.
Recall that a radio call sign is tied to an individual by a public and accessible document on the FCC webpage - so as these perpetrators began to make a name for themselves, inquiring operators were able to access personal information and build a much more complete “case file” on these deviant individuals. A small group of extremely dedicated amateur operators, who (again) have a reputation of being some of the most extreme and militantly self-policing of any hobby in existence, even began conducting extensive research into the personal lives of these errant individuals based on the identity tied to their callsign. The originally well-meaning compilation websites devolved into a state of delirious frustration with the mischief makers, bringing forth (by the legal name of the errant operators) accusations ranging from psychopathy to pedophilia. One such website, which named the individual in question, claims that the offending operator could be “accurately described as schizophrenic, obscene, profane, antisemitic, misogynistic, homophobic, pedophilic, sado-masochistic, racist...” All of these accusations presented on a forum that also included sufficient information to determine the home address of the ill-behaved operator. It was clear that a certain group of hobbyists, frustrated by an extreme lack of respect for the gentlemanly traditions of their craft, would stop at nothing to discredit the troublemakers.
Alas, the hobby received a welcomed break in the early-mid 2010s, with the FCC going on an enforcement wave and imposing long-overdue enforcement actions against a few of the most well-known 313 troublemakers. In one case, an operator alleged by the FCC to have spent 40 minutes transmitting “a prerecorded song and various animal noises” during their enforcement sweep on 14.313 and was ordered to pay $22,000 in civil forfeitures. Other infamous troublemakers racked up civil penalties of $35,000 or more for their flippant behavior. The community rejoiced and, for quite some time, the enforcement action was the topic du jour on every amateur radio bulletin.
Did the enforcement wave usher in a new era of good behavior on the amateur bands? Yes, and no. 14.313 is still rife with unsavory political rants and arguments, though certainly more tame. The lesser troublemakers - those who managed to lay just under the FCC radar - persist. The FCC still has a (probably well-deserved) reputation for not doing as much as they could to protect the integrity of the amateur bands. However, the FCC has utilized the ever-expanding reach of the internet to allow self-policing amateurs to file more meaningful reports of the naughty behavior, and modern technology allows the FCC to determine the origin of illegal transmissions with an almost scary degree of accuracy. The only question remains: with another incoming wave of popularity brought on by the advent of affordable foreign radios and computer-based operation, will the FCC be able to keep up with new troublemakers as they arrive on the scene?
submitted by BeagleInTheSnow to HobbyDrama [link] [comments]
2021.12.05 11:59 ASICmachine Tired of seeing the word "crash" on every post...let's move on shall we (x-post from /r/Cryptocurrency)
2021.12.05 11:59 snufflezzz 1kg Purple HHKB JP with matching 23u
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2021.12.05 11:59 SoothingTones 3hrs Binaural Synth Relaxing Sleep Music
|submitted by SoothingTones to SleepMusic [link] [comments]|
2021.12.05 11:59 ASICmachine Crypto Analyst Michaël van de Poppe Details Path Ahead for Polygon, Harmony and VeChain (x-post from /r/Cryptocurrency)
2021.12.05 11:59 MaiasaLiger [WIP] In absolute ecstasy about this Christmas blend I came up with. My sucky phone camera can't even begin to do it justice. Originally I was gonna give this FO away, no way I'm keeping it now YOINK MINE
|submitted by MaiasaLiger to CrossStitch [link] [comments]|
2021.12.05 11:59 ASICmachine Spin the wheel to find out which asset ALL of your crypto is going to be converted into. Are you holding or selling? (x-post from /r/Cryptocurrency)
|submitted by ASICmachine to CryptoCurrencyClassic [link] [comments]|
2021.12.05 11:59 kenna-dip I need help finding the Steve Madden Patchwork Boot…or even the Jeffrey Campbell Keely Boot
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2021.12.05 11:59 Minute-Stand1985 ‼️1x FREE NFT - $10.000💵 in cash. Check comments section for additional details. 👇🤑
|submitted by Minute-Stand1985 to FreeNFTs [link] [comments]|
2021.12.05 11:59 N64Josh Smash Bros Stream
|submitted by N64Josh to videos [link] [comments]|
2021.12.05 11:59 ASICmachine Why Syscoin should be everyone’s first choice for their ZKrollup play (x-post from /r/Cryptocurrency)